Peñafiel is a town of kings, noblemen, and wine. Regarded as the capital of the Ribera del Duero wines, the findings of the archaeological site of Pintia, a mere 4 kilometres away, in the municipality of Padilla de Duero, have demonstrated that wine has been made in this area for more than 2,000 years. That is when the village was founded, although its true expansion took place in the Middle Ages.

The town of Peñafiel rests in its castle, an impressive medieval stone fortress standing on a strategic place. Looking like a ship, the Castillo de Peñafiel stands atop a hillock overlooking a wide panoramic view including the valleys of the rivers Botijas and Duratón. It was declared a National Monument in 1917, and is widely regarded as one of the most impressive fortresses of the Middle Ages. Today, the castle houses the Museo Provincial del Vino.

Before leaving Peñafiel, visitors must see the Plaza del Coso, a medieval square surrounded by houses with balconies decorated with Arabic wooden filigree work. It preserves its original shape and function, a bullfighting arena, once private, public today.