Cattle are of great importance in the economy of Castilla y León, which is maintained as a community with a higher census of cattle from Spain.

Cattle are present in the culture of the region since ancient times and it is thus attested in some engravings of Siega Verde (Salamanca). Ancestral practices and transhumance are still in force and it is quite a spectacle watching their step each year in the month of June by the Puerto del Pico (Avila).

Castilla y Leon has different breeds of beef, identified with some figures of quality. The native include the Morucha, Avileña Negra Iberica, Sayaguesa, the Alistana-Sanabresa or the Monchina, and to mention any of those introduced, the Parda de Montaña. It is also a traditional place for breeding of oxen of prized and juicy red meats.